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Centrifugal Pump

A machine for moving a liquid, such as water, by accelerating it radially outward in an impeller to a surrounding volute casing.
A Centrifugal pump have a high-speed rotating impeller whose blades throw the water outwards.

Energy usage

The energy usage in a pumping installation is determined by the flow required, the height lifted and the length and friction characteristics of the pipeline. The power required to drive a pump (Pi), is defined simply using SI units by

P_i= \cfrac{\rho\ g\ H\ Q}{\eta}

Pi is the input power required (W)
ρ is the fluid density (kg/m3)
g is the standard acceleration of gravity (9.80665 m/s2)
H is the energy Head added to the flow (m)
Q is the flow rate (m3/s)
η is the efficiency of the pump plant as a decimal

Pump Efficiency

Pump efficiency, η (%) is a measure of the efficiency with wich the pump transfers useful work to the fluid.
η = Pin/Pout   (2)
η = efficiency (%)
Pin = power input
Pout = power output  

 Different types of pump head
  • Total Static Head -  Total head when the pump is not running
  • Total Dynamic Head (Total System Head) - Total head when the pump is running
  • Static Suction Head - Head on the suction side, with pump off, if the head is higher than the pump impeller
  • Static Suction Lift - Head on the suction side, with pump off, if the head is lower than the pump impeller
  • Static Discharge Head - Head on discharge side of pump with the pump off
  • Dynamic Suction Head/Lift - Head on suction side of pump with pump on
  • Dynamic Discharge Head - Head on discharge side of pump with pump on

Problems of centrifugal pumps

  • Cavitation—the NPSH of the system is too low for the selected pump
  • Wear of the Impeller—can be worsened by suspended solids
  • Corrosion inside the pump- caused by the fluid properties
  • Overheating due to low flow
  • Leakage along rotating shaft
  • Lack of prime—centrifugal pumps must be filled (with the fluid to be pumped) in order to operate
  • Surge 


  1. Fluid sucked trough impeller eye and discharge @ 90 degree angle

  2. Centrifugal pumps, are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbo machinery. Centrifugal pumps are used to transport liquids/fluids by the conversion of the rotational kinetic energy to the hydro dynamics energy of the liquid flow.

    thanks a lot for sharing

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