The hammer is a very simple striking tool, being just a weighted head and handle to direct its course.
The ball-peen hammer: Often termed the machinist’s hammer is a very useful tool in workshop and engine room. The head of the hammer is made of hardened steel. The handle is of hiskory or other hardwood. The flat portion of the head is called the face, and the other end is known as the peen, the latter being used for heading rivets and similar peening or drawing operations. The hole for the handle is the eye. Ball-peen hammers are classed according to the weight of the head without the handle. They vary in size from 4-ounces to 2.5 pounds, there popular sizes being the 6-ounces for light work, the 12-ounces for general utility, and the 16-ounces for heavy work.
The straight –peen hammer is used for spreading or drawing out material in line with the handle, while the cross-peen hammer is used for the same operation at right angles with the handle. The claw hammer is used for driving and pulling nails.
Hammers with heads made of soft material, such as lead copper, Babbitt, rawhide, plastic, etc, are called soft hammers. Soft hammers are generally used where a steel hammer might mar or injure the work.

The eye in the hammer head is made with a slightly taper in both directions from the center. After the handle is inserted in the head, a steel wedges is driven into the end. This expands the taper of the handle in the eye and wedges the handle in both directions. If the wedge starts to come out, it should be driven in again. If the wedge comes out and it lost, it must be replaced before continuing to use the hammer. Never work with a hammer having a loose head. A loose head will eventually fly off, and may injure someone.
When using a hammer, it should be held near the end of the handle with the face of the hammer parallel to the work. A grip just tight enough to control the blow is best.

Sledges: Sledge or sledge hammers, are used for heavy work. They can be procured in single-face and double face types, a double-face sledge being shown in the figure below, and very in weight from 4-20 pounds. The handles vary in length up to 38 inches.
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